The Authority of Jesus Challenged
1One20:1–8 Mt 21:23–27; Mk 11:27–33 day as he was teaching20:1 Lk 19:47 the people in the temple and proclaiming the good news,20:1 Lk 4:18; 8:1 the chief priests and the scribes, with the elders,20:1 Lk 9:22; 22:66 came
2and said to him, “Tell us, by what authority are you doing these things? Who is it who gave you this authority?”
3He answered them, “I will also ask you a question. Tell me,
4was the baptism of John from heaven or of human origin?”
5They discussed it among themselves: “If we say, ‘From heaven,’ he will say, ‘Why didn’t you believe him?’
6But if we say, ‘Of human origin,’ all the people20:6 Lk 19:48 will stone us, because they are convinced that John was a prophet.”20:6 Mt 11:9; Lk 7:29–30
7So they answered that they did not know its origin.
8And Jesus said to them, “Neither will I tell you by what authority I do these things.”
The Parable of the Vineyard Owner
9Now20:9–19 Mt 21:33–46; Mk 12:1–12 he began to tell the people this parable: “A man planted a vineyard,20:9 Is 5:1–7 leased it to tenant farmers, and went away for a long time.
10At harvest time he sent a servant to the farmers so that they might give him some fruit from the vineyard. But the farmers beat him and sent him away empty-handed.
11He sent yet another servant, but they beat that one too, treated him shamefully, and sent him away empty-handed.
12And he sent yet a third, but they wounded this one too and threw him out.
13 “Then the owner of the vineyard said, ‘What should I do? I will send my beloved 20:13 Mt 17:5; Lk 3:22 son. Perhaps20:13 Other mss add when they see him they will respect him.’
14 “But when the tenant farmers saw him, they discussed it among themselves and said, ‘This is the heir. Let’s kill him, so that the inheritance will be ours.’ 20:14 Lk 16:16
15So they threw him out of the vineyard and killed him.
“What then will the owner of the vineyard do to them?
16He will come and kill20:16 Lk 19:27 those farmers and give the vineyard to others.”
But when they heard this they said, “That must never happen!” 20:16 Rm 3:4; 1Co 6:15; Gl 2:17
17But he looked at them and said, “Then what is the meaning of this Scripture:20:17 Lit “What then is this that is written20:17 Lk 4:17; 18:31; 21:22,37; 24:44
The stone that the builders rejected
has become the cornerstone? 20:17 Ps 118:22 20:17 Ps 118:22; Ac 4:11; Eph 2:20; 1Pt 2:4–7
18 Everyone who falls on that stone will be broken to pieces, but on whomever it falls, it will shatter him.” 20:18 Is 8:14–15; Dn 2:34–35,44–45; Rm 9:32–33; 1Pt 2:8
19Then the scribes and the chief priests20:19 Mt 2:4; 20:18; 21:15; Lk 22:2; 23:10 looked for a way to get their hands on him20:19 Lk 19:47; 21:12 that very hour, because they knew he had told this parable against them, but they feared the people.20:19 Lk 22:2
God and Caesar
20They20:20–26 Mt 20:15–22; Mk 12:13–17 watched closely20:20 Lk 6:7; 14:1 and sent spies20:20 Mt 22:15–16 who pretended to be righteous,20:20 Or upright so that they could catch him in what he said,20:20 Lk 11:54 to hand him20:20 Lk 24:20; Ac 3:13; Rm 8:32 over to the governor’s20:20 Mt 27:2; Lk 21:12 rule and authority.
21They questioned him, “Teacher, we know that you speak and teach correctly,20:21 Jn 3:2 and you don’t show partiality20:21 Lit you don’t receive a face20:21 Dt 1:17; 10:17; Mal 2:9; Mt 22:16 but teach truthfully the way of God.20:21 Ac 13:10; 18:25–26
22Is it lawful20:22 Lk 6:9; 14:3 for us to pay taxes20:22 Mt 17:25; Lk 23:2; Rm 13:6–7 to Caesar20:22 Lk 2:1; 3:1; 20:24–25; 23:2 or not?”
23But detecting their craftiness, he said to them,20:23 Other mss add “Why are you testing me?
24“Show me a denarius.20:24 A denarius = one day’s wage Whose image and inscription does it have?”
“Caesar’s,” they said.
25 “Well then,” he told them, “give to Caesar20:25 Mt 22:21 the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s.”
26They were not able to catch him in what he said in public, and being amazed at his answer, they became silent.20:26 Lk 9:36; 14:4
The Sadducees and the Resurrection
27Some20:27–40 Mt 22:23–33,46; Mk 12:18–27,34 of the Sadducees, who say there is no resurrection,20:27 Ac 23:6 came up and questioned him:
28“Teacher, Moses wrote for us that if a man’s brother has a wife, and dies childless, his brother should take the wife and produce offspring for his brother.20:28Dt 25:520:28 Dt 25:5
29Now there were seven brothers. The first took a wife and died without children.
30Also the second20:30 Other mss add took her as wife, and he died without children
31and the third took her. In the same way, all seven died and left no children.
32Finally, the woman died too.
33In the resurrection, therefore, whose wife will the woman be? For all seven had married her.”
34Jesus told them, “The children of this age20:34 Lk 16:8 marry and are given in marriage.20:34 Lk 17:27
35But those who are counted worthy20:35 Ac 5:41; 2Th 1:5 to take part in that age20:35 Mk 10:30 and in the resurrection from the dead neither marry nor are given in marriage.
36For they can no longer die,20:36 1Co 15:54–55; Rv 21:4 because they are like angels and are children of God,20:36 Ps 82:6; Mt 5:45; Rm 8:14,19; Gl 3:26 since they are children of the resurrection.
37Moses even indicated in the passage about the burning bush that the dead are raised, where he calls the Lord the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob.20:37Ex 3:6,1520:37 Ex 3:6,15–16; 4:5; Mt 1:2; Ac 3:13; 7:30–32
38He is not the God of the dead but of the living, because all are living to20:38 Or with him.”20:38 Rm 6:10–11; 14:7–8; 2Co 5:14–15; Gl 2:19–20; 1Th 4:14; 5:10
39Some of the scribes answered, “Teacher, you have spoken well.”
40And they no longer dared to ask him anything.
The Question about the Messiah
41Then20:41–44 Mt 22:41–46; Mk 12:34–37 he said to them, “How can they say that the Messiah is the son of David?20:41 Mt 1:1,17; Lk 1:27; Rm 1:3; Eph 5:2
42For David himself says in the Book of Psalms:20:42 Lk 24:44; Ac 1:20
The Lord declared to my Lord,
‘Sit at my right hand
43 until I make your enemies your footstool.’ 20:42–43 Ps 110:1 20:42–43 Ps 110:1; Ac 2:34–35; 1Co 15:25; Heb 1:13; 10:13
44 David calls him ‘Lord.’ How, then, can he be his son?” 20:44 Rm 1:3–4
Warning against the Scribes
45While20:45–47 Mt 23:1–36; Mk 12:37–40 all the people were listening, he said to his disciples,
46“Beware20:46 Mt 16:6 of the scribes, who want to go around in long robes and who love greetings in the marketplaces, the best seats in the synagogues, and the places of honor at banquets.20:46 Lk 11:43
47They devour widows’ houses and say long prayers just for show. These will receive harsher judgment.”20:47 Or judgment