The Vine and the Calf
1Israel is a lush10:1 Or ravaged vine;10:1 Is 5:1–7; Ezk 15:1–6
it yields fruit for itself.
The more his fruit increased,
the more he increased the altars.10:1 Hs 8:11; 12:11
The better his land produced,
the better they made the sacred pillars.10:1 1Kg 14:23; Hs 3:4
2Their hearts are devious;10:2 Or divided10:2 1Kg 18:21; Zph 1:5
now they must bear their guilt.10:2 Hs 13:16
The Lord will break down their altars10:2 Mc 5:13
and demolish their sacred pillars.
3In fact, they are now saying,
“We have no king!
For we do not fear the Lord.10:3 Ps 12:4; Is 5:19
What can a king do for us?”
4They speak mere words,
taking false oaths while making covenants.10:4 Ezk 17:13–19; Hs 4:2
So lawsuits break out
like poisonous weeds in the furrows of a field.10:4 Dt 31:16–17; 2Kg 17:3–4

5The residents of Samaria10:5 Hs 7:1 will have anxiety
over the calf10:5 Hs 8:5–6 of Beth-aven.10:5 Hs 4:15; 5:8
Indeed, its idolatrous priests rejoiced over it;
the people will mourn over it,
over its glory.10:5 Hs 9:11
It will certainly go into exile.
6The calf itself will be taken to Assyria10:6 Hs 11:5
as an offering to the great king.10:6 Or to King Yareb10:6 Hs 5:13
Ephraim will experience shame;10:6 Hs 4:7
Israel will be ashamed of its counsel.10:6 Is 30:3; Jr 7:24
7Samaria’s king will disappear10:7 Or will be cut off10:7 Hs 13:11
like foam10:7 Or a stick on the surface of the water.
8The high places10:8 Dt 12:2; Hs 4:13 of Aven, the sin of Israel,10:8 1Kg 12:28–30; 13:34
will be destroyed;
thorns and thistles will grow over their altars.10:8 Is 32:13; Hs 9:6
They will say to the mountains,10:8 Lk 23:30; Rv 6:16 “Cover us!”
and to the hills, “Fall on us!” 10:8 Rv 6:16
Israel’s Defeat because of Sin
9Israel, you have sinned
since the days of Gibeah;10:9 Hs 5:8; 9:9
they have taken their stand there.
Will not war against the unjust
overtake them in Gibeah?
10I will discipline10:10 Hs 4:9 them at my discretion;10:10 Ezk 5:13
nations will be gathered against them
to put them in bondage10:10 LXX, Syr, Vg read against them when they are disciplined
for their double iniquity.10:10 Jdg 19–21; 1Kg 12:28–30

11Ephraim is a well-trained calf10:11 Jr 5:11; Hs 4:16
that loves to thresh,
but I will place a yoke on10:11 Lit will pass over her fine neck.10:11 Jr 28:14
I will harness Ephraim;10:11 Ps 66:12
Judah will plow;
Jacob will do the final plowing.
12Sow righteousness for yourselves10:12 Pr 11:18
and reap faithful love;
break up your unplowed ground.10:12 Jr 4:3
It is time to seek the Lord10:12 Hs 4:1; 12:6
until he comes10:12 Hs 6:3 and sends righteousness
on you like the rain.10:12 Is 44:3; 45:8

13You have plowed wickedness and reaped injustice;10:13 Jb 4:8; Gl 6:7
you have eaten the fruit of lies.10:13 Hs 4:2; 7:3; 11:12
Because you have trusted in your own way10:13 LXX reads your chariots
and in your large number of soldiers,10:13 Ps 33:16
14the roar of battle will rise against your people,
and all your fortifications will be demolished10:14 Is 17:3
in a day of war,
like Shalman’s destruction of Beth-arbel.
Mothers will be dashed to pieces
along with their children.10:14 Hs 13:16
15So it will be done to you, Bethel,10:15 Hs 4:15; 10:5
because of your extreme evil.
At dawn the king of Israel will be totally destroyed.