God’s Righteous Judgment
1Therefore, every one of you2:1 Lit Therefore, O man, every one2:1 Lk 12:14; Rm 9:20 who judges is without excuse.2:1 Rm 1:20 For when you judge another,2:1 2Sm 12:5–7; Mt 7:1; Rm 14:22 you condemn yourself, since you, the judge, do the same things.
2Now we know that God’s judgment on those who do such things is based on the truth.
3Do you think — anyone of you who judges those who do such things yet do the same — that you will escape God’s judgment?
4Or do you despise the riches of his kindness,2:4 Rm 11:22 restraint,2:4 Rm 3:25 and patience,2:4 Ex 34:6; Rm 9:22; 1Tm 1:16; 1Pt 3:20; 2Pt 3:15 not recognizing2:4 Or patience, because you do not recognize that God’s kindness2:4 2Pt 3:9 is intended to lead you to repentance?
5Because of your hardened and unrepentant heart you are storing up wrath2:5 Dt 32:34; Pr 1:18 for yourself in the day of wrath,2:5 Ps 110:5; 2Co 5:10; 2Th 1:5; Jd 6 when God’s righteous judgment is revealed.
6He will repay each one according to his works:2:6Ps 62:12; Pr 24:122:6 Ps 62:12; Pr 24:12; Mt 16:27
7eternal life2:7 1Co 15:42,50,53 to those who by persistence in doing good2:7 Lk 8:15; Heb 10:36 seek glory, honor,2:7 Heb 2:7; 1Pt 1:7 and immortality;2:7 Mt 25:46
8but wrath and anger to those who are self-seeking2:8 2Co 12:20; Gl 5:20; Php 2:3; Jms 3:14,16 and disobey the truth2:8 2Th 2:12 while obeying unrighteousness.
9There will be affliction and distress2:9 Rm 8:35 for every human being who does evil, first to the Jew, and also to the Greek;2:9 Ac 3:26; Rm 1:16; 1Pt 4:17
10but glory, honor, and peace for everyone who does what is good, first to the Jew, and also to the Greek.
11For there is no favoritism with God.2:11 Dt 10:17; Ac 10:34
12For all who sin without the law2:12 1Co 9:21 will also perish without the law, and all who sin under2:12 Lit in the law will be judged by the law.
13For the hearers of the law2:13 Mt 7:21,24; Jn 13:17; Jms 1:22 are not righteous before God, but the doers of the law will be justified.2:13 Or acquitted
14So, when Gentiles, who do not by nature have the law,2:14 Ac 10:35; Rm 1:19 do2:14 Or who do not have the law, instinctively do what the law demands, they are a law to themselves even though they do not have the law.
15They show that the work of the law2:15 The code of conduct required by the law is written on their hearts.2:15 Rm 2:27 Their consciences confirm this. Their competing thoughts either accuse or even excuse them2:15 Internal debate, either in a person or among the pagan moralists
16on the day when God judges2:16 Ac 10:42; 17:31; Rm 3:6; 14:10 what people have kept secret, according to my gospel through Christ Jesus.2:16 Rm 16:25; 1Co 15:1; Gl 1:11; 1Tm 1:11; 2Tm 2:8
Jewish Violation of the Law
17Now if2:17 Other mss read Look — you call yourself a Jew, and rely on the law,2:17 Mc 3:11; Jn 5:45; Rm 9:4 and boast in God,
18and know his will, and approve the things that are superior,2:18 Php 1:10 being instructed from the law,
19and if you are convinced that you are a guide for the blind, a light to those in darkness,
20an instructor of the ignorant, a teacher of the immature, having the embodiment of knowledge and truth2:20 Is 2:1–4; 42:6–7; 49:6 in the law — 
21you then, who teach another,2:21 Mt 23:3–7 don’t you teach yourself? You who preach, “You must not steal” — do you steal?
22You who say, “You must not commit adultery” — do you commit adultery? You who detest idols, do you rob temples?2:22 Ac 19:37
23You who boast in the law,2:23 Mc 3:11; Jn 5:45; Rm 9:4 do you dishonor God by breaking the law?2:23 Or you dishonor God by breaking the law.
24For, as it is written: The name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you.2:24Is 52:52:24 Is 52:5; Ezk 36:20–23; 2Pt 2:2
Circumcision of the Heart
25Circumcision benefits you if you observe the law, but if you are a lawbreaker, your circumcision has become uncircumcision.2:25 Jr 4:4; 9:25
26So if an uncircumcised2:26 Rm 3:30; 1Co 7:19; Eph 2:11 man keeps the law’s requirements,2:26 Rm 8:4 will not his uncircumcision be counted as circumcision?
27A man who is physically uncircumcised, but who keeps the law, will judge you2:27 Mt 12:41 who are a lawbreaker in spite of having the letter of the law and circumcision.
28For a person is not a Jew who is one outwardly,2:28 Jn 8:39; Rm 9:6; Gl 6:15 and true circumcision is not something visible in the flesh.
29On the contrary, a person is a Jew who is one inwardly,2:29 Php 3:3; Col 2:11 and circumcision is of the heart — by the Spirit, not the letter.2:29 Or heart — spiritually, not literally2:29 Rm 7:6; 2Co 3:6 That person’s praise is not from people but from God.2:29 Jn 5:44; 12:43; 1Co 4:5; 2Co 10:18